BC - Multiple Intelligence
Hi, I’m Lee Hayden, physicist, website owner, manager, and author . I am pleased to welcome you to the Hayden Center For Educational Excellence. The Hayden Center offers students a variety of educational programs of study, each program leading to an opportunity to experience a unique form of lifestyle enrichment. Click here to review the available programs of study, courses, durations, and costs. Contact Lee Hayden at 707-945-1294 for additional information.
This section contains key principles respected at the Hayden Center, purpose of this course, and cost.
Principle HC#1. The overarching principle at the Hayden Center is that the universe continues to self-organize producing increasingly complex organizations of matter which is more popularly known as reality. As part of the reality produced by the universe, we human beings will continue the self-organization process. This course presents a high level perspective on how a person self-organizes to improve their liftstyle and obtain a more meaningful life.
Principle HC#2. The need to live an enriched lifestyle is deeply embedded in every human being. In general, achieving an enriched lifestyle can be a very difficult task and education focused on this subject will provide lifetime benefits.
Principle HC#3. All human beings possess multiple intelligences. It is believed by almost all educational researchers that the quality of a persons life can be enhanced by expanding each of that person’s intelligences. Consequently, the Hayden Center offers this course on multiple intelligences.
Expanding one or more of our multiple intelligences
can be life changing.
Principle HC#4. I’m Lee Hayden and I commit to making this a course of high quality and exceptionally beneficial to you.
Purpose. The overall purpose of this brief/joint course combination is to provide tools for understanding and expanding each of our individual intelligences. The purpose of this brief course is to introduce the concept of multiple intelligences, define each individual intelligence, list typical activities performed by an individual to help identify tendencies toward a given type of intelligence, and summarize the major characteristics each intelligence. The purpose of the short course is to 1) present the information in the brief course in greater detail and then 2) provide a set of specific tools needed to expand each intelligence.
Cost. This brief course is free of charge. The associated short course if fee based and is conducted face-to-face in person or online. To enroll in the short course, phone Lee at 702-945-1294.
At the Hayden Center, the focus is on the following intelligences: cognitive, emotional, and social.
Basic research results:
Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct intelligences. This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways," according to Gardner . According to this theory, "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains."
Gardner says that these differences "challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning. Indeed, as currently constituted, our educational system is heavily biased toward linguistic modes of instruction and assessment and, to a somewhat lesser degree, toward logical-quantitative modes as well." Gardner argues that "a contrasting set of assumptions is more likely to be educationally effective. Students learn in ways that are identifiably distinctive. The broad spectrum of students - and perhaps the society as a whole - would be better served if disciplines could be presented in a numbers of ways and learning could be assessed through a variety of means." The learning styles are presented in Table 1, Interests And Activities For Multiple Intelligences..
Visual-Spatial - think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.
Bodily-kinesthetic - use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.
Musical - show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.
Interpersonal - understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail.
Intrapersonal - understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners.
Linguistic - using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.
Logical -Mathematical - reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.
At first, it may seem impossible to teach to all learning styles. However, as we move into using a mix of media or multimedia, it becomes easier. As we understand learning styles, it becomes apparent why multimedia appeals to learners and why a mix of media is more effective. It satisfies the many types of learning preferences that one person may embody or that a class embodies. A review of the literature shows that a variety of decisions must be made when choosing media that is appropriate to learning style.
Visuals: Visual media help students acquire concrete concepts, such as object identification, spatial relationship, or motor skills where words alone are inefficient.
Printed words: There is disagreement about audio's superiority to print for affective objectives; several models do not recommend verbal sound if it is not part of the task to be learned.
Sound: A distinction is drawn between verbal sound and non-verbal sound such as music. Sound media are necessary to present a stimulus for recall or sound recognition. Audio narration is recommended for poor readers.
Motion: Models force decisions among still, limited movement, and full movement visuals. Motion is used to depict human performance so that learners can copy the movement. Several models assert that motion may be unnecessary and provides decision aid questions based upon objectives. Visual media which portray motion are best to show psychomotor or cognitive domain expectations by showing the skill as a model against which students can measure their performance.
Color: Decisions on color display are required if an object's color is relevant to what is being learned.
Realia: Realia are tangible, real objects which are not models and are useful to teach motor and cognitive skills involving unfamiliar objects. Realia are appropriate for use with individuals or groups and may be situation based. Realia may be used to present information realistically but it may be equally important that the presentation corresponds with the way learner's represent information internally.
Instructional Setting: Design should cover whether the materials are to be used in a home or instructional setting and consider the size what is to be learned. Print instruction should be delivered in an individualized mode which allows the learner to set the learning pace. The ability to provide corrective feedback for individual learners is important but any medium can provide corrective feedback by stating the correct answer to allow comparison of the two answers.
Learner Characteristics: Most models consider learner characteristics as media may be differentially effective for different learners. Although research has had limited success in identifying the media most suitable for types of learners several models are based on this method.
Reading ability: Pictures facilitate learning for poor readers who benefit more from speaking than from writing because they understand spoken words; self-directed good readers can control the pace; and print allows easier review.
Categories of Learning Outcomes: Categories ranged from three to eleven and most include some or all of Gagne's (1977) learning categories; intellectual skills, verbal information, motor skills, attitudes, and cognitive strategies. Several models suggest a procedure which categorizes learning outcomes, plans instructional events to teach objectives, identifies the type of stimuli to present events, and media capable of presenting the stimuli.
Events of Instruction: The external events which support internal learning processes are called events of instruction. The events of instruction are planned before selecting the media to present it.
Performance: Many models discuss eliciting performance where the student practices the task which sets the stage for reinforcement. Several models indicate that the elicited performance should be categorized by type; overt, covert, motor, verbal, constructed, and select. Media should be selected which is best able to elicit these responses and the response frequency. One model advocates a behavioral approach so that media is chosen to elicit responses for practice. To provide feedback about the student's response, an interactive medium might be chosen, but any medium can provide feedback. Learner characteristics such as error proneness and anxiety should influence media selection.
Testing which traditionally is accomplished through print, may be handled by electronic media. Media are better able to assess learners' visual skills than are print media and can be used to assess learner performance in realistic situations.
This section is from "The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide," by Carla Lane
[ Presented in the associated short course only]
“Anyone can become angry - that is easy. But to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and to the right way - this is not easy.”
Despite evidence to the contrary, many people continue to falsely believe that their success in life strongly depends on their I.Q. Since their I.Q is mainly a function of genetics, they believe they are stuck with their I.Q. for a lifetime. Such a belief by both authorities in their environment and the people themselves strongly impact their life choices. This false belief is often already consciously or unconsciously present in students of middle school and even elementary school age. As discussed elsewhere , each of us is limited by many individual beliefs in our personal belief system and it is necessary to distinquish these beliefs to experience an enriched lifestyle. A common belief occurrence that limits learning motivation is poor self-esteem. If self-esteem is poor, then intrinsic motivation to learn is poor. In this case, if learning occurs at all, it occurs primary by external motivations such as loss of priviliges or by punishment of some sort.
Fortunately, contrary evidence shows that success in life is a function of multiple intelligences such as cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and other more rare intelligences. Even more fortunately, these intelligencies are not fixed but each can be improved by the learning process. However, despite educators being generally familiar with the concept of multiple intelligences, classroom courses remain excessively academic without adequate incorporation of a non-academic knowledge such as multiple intelligences.
The Hayden Center goal is to provide an educational environment in which the student acquires an enriched lifestyle. For this reason, all programs at the Hayden Center require a working knowledge of each of the multiple intelligencies. In today’s complex, rapidly changing, and competitive workplace and economic environments, a working knowledge is imperative.
Changing a belief can be a very challenging task.
What is emotional intelligence (EQ)? How is it acquired?
Emotional intelligence is a set of mental abilities and skills that can help you to successfully manage both yourself and the demands placed on you by others in your environment. Your environment may be any relationship with people: at your workplace, at home with family, at a part, etc.
Developing your own EQ enables you to:
Why do people possess different levels of emotional intelligence? Is it nature or nurture? Researchers have not yet adequately answered these questions.
The Hayden Center perspective is that emotional intelligence can be understood and greatly improved. The path to improvement is similar to the path for improvement of poor self-esteem, as discussed in the course “Building Self-Esteem Knowledge”. Click Here
Several tests measuring emotional intelligence are publicly available. The short course associated with this brief course also provides a test and answers designed to assess your level of emotional intelligence.
[Presented in the associated short course only]
[Presented in the associated short course only]
Table 1. Interests And Activities For Multiple Intelligences
Intrapersonal. These are self-reflecting people who know themselves very well. They have a great desire to reflect on what they believe and think. They like to keep journals.
Interpersonal. These people are "people smart." They love social experiences, interacting with others, sharing their thoughts and listening to the thoughts of others, and helping people solve problems. They remember every detail related to the people in their world.
Verbal/Linguistic. People with this type of intelligence have a love of words.
Naturalist. These learners like going on a little walk or sitting outside. They can remember every plant and every bird.
Visual/Spatial. Visual-Spatial - think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.
Bodily/Kinesthetic.Bodily-kinesthetic - use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.
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